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    云开雾散:美国国家公园PPP模式五大实务问答

    放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2016-04-08  浏览次数:834138
    核心提示:文/吴怡雯  Clearing the air: the 5 most common questions about national park PPPs  云开雾散:美国国家公园PPP模式五大实务问答  Big Pine CreekRecreation Area, Inyo National Forest,California.美国加州因幼国家森林  If the thought of summer conjures up visions of national parks, youre notalon

    文/吴怡雯

      Clearing the air: the 5 most common questions about national park ppps

      云开雾散:美国国家公园PPP模式五大实务问答

      Big Pine CreekRecreation Area, Inyo National Forest, California.美国加州因幼国家森林

      If the thought of summer conjures up visions of national parks, you’re not alone – in 2014, nearly 3 million tourists visited forests, mountains, trails, and rivers at U.S. national parks.

      If you crossed the gate into one of these treasures, you probably didn’t care whether that particular forest or mountain fell under government or private ownership. But it’s worth noting, because national park concessions fill a vital role helping the National Park Service carry out its mission, and there are benefits to these partnerships that can keep the parks viable — and the visitors happy — for decades to come.

      There are also misconceptions about national park PPPs. To clear the air, I’ve answered some of the most common questions below.

      如果夏日徜徉在美丽的国家公园,你并不会感到孤单-2014年,近三百万游客游览了美国国家公园的森林、山岭、栈道和河流。

      当你进入大门观赏这些珍宝,你应该不会在意哪片森林或哪个瀑布的所有权归属是政府还是私营部门。但值得一提的是,国家公园优惠政策在国家公园管理局执行工作中起到了至关重要的作用。公私合作伙伴关系也让公园的运营收益—几十年来让游客感到满意。

      人们长期以来对国家公园PPP模式抱有一些误解。下面的解答就将消除这些疑虑。

      1How does national park privatization work?

      Generally, private operators are more efficient than the government in the park operations. In part, this is because these companies have focused their whole business model on park operations, so they have developed proven processes for park management.

      A private work force tends to be less expensive and more flexible than civil servants. Perhaps more importantly, civil servants typically are paid all year long, even when the park is not very busy or is closed. In contrast, concessionaires have identified a large pool of workers who are flexible and actually are looking for seasonal work. Using these efficien­cies, private operators take on public parks that are typically losing money for the government and convert them to a financial asset, generating cash for the government in the form of rent pay­ments while still serving the public.

      Perhaps most important, privatizing parks takes them off the government budget, and makes them immune from being pawns in government budget battles. In the 1990s, when a disagree­ment between President Clinton and the Repub­lican Congress shut down the government, the only federal parks open were those operated by private concessionaires.

      1.私有化在国家公园的经营中可行吗?

      总体上说,私人运营商比政府部门在公园的运营管理中更加高效。在某种程度上,这是因为这些公司拥有一整套公园运营的商业模型,所以他们的公园管理流程更加成熟。

      私人劳动力成本较低,往往比公务员更加便宜,而且机动性也更强。更重要的是,雇佣公务员通常要支付整年的薪水,尽管公园有时业务并不繁忙甚至淡季时是停业的。相比之下,特许经营则可以在市场上筛选更为灵活的人力资源,比如正在寻求季节性工作的人员。利用这样的高效运营,私营企业从政府手中承接那些处于亏损处境的国家公园,并转化为金融资产,以租金的形式创造现金,为政府部门带来创收渠道,同时仍然给公众提供服务。

      也许最重要的是,私营公园可以从政府预算中全身而退,免于成为政府财政预算中的牺牲品。在九十年代,当克林顿总统和共和党控制的国会之间出现分歧从而导致政府关闭时,唯一开放的是由私人特许经营的联邦公园。

      2Is a national park operated under a PPP vulnerable to government sequester conditions?

      For those of us who love parks, it’s exasperating to see that they are constantly used as a political football in budget debates.One advantage of concession operation of parks, beyond the expense reductions, is that the park budgets become untouchable in these political food fights.

      2.在PPP运营模式下的国家公园是否会成为政府财政预算缩减情况下攻击的对象?

      令人气愤的看到,这些美丽的公园不断成为政府预算辩论中的政治足球。拥有私人特许经营权的公园,除了缩减开支这一大优势,公园预算已经成为政治斗争中无法触碰的领域。

      3How does the private company get paid?

      With a few exceptions, most recreation conces­sionaires are paid entirely by user fees — for example, by the fees at the gate, for camping, and from certain retail sales within the park. The concessionaire is not paid by the govern­ment, and receives no subsidy. In our company, 100 percent of the revenues we receive are from visitors.

      3。 私营企业如何盈利?

      除了少数例外,多数旅游特许经营完全由使用者支付-比如门票费、露营费、公园内的商店零售。政府不支付任何费用,也没有任何补贴。在我们公司,我们的收入100%来自游客。

      4Won’t private companies just build a McDonald’s in front of Old Faithful?

      This is one of my favorite questions, because it is absolutely predictable that it will get asked whenever I discuss park privatization with a group of government officials. Typically I give three answers:

      1. It simply is not possible. Under the terms of a typical operating contract, a concessionaire cannot change fees, facilities, operating hours, or even cut down a tree without writ­ten approval from the parks organization.

      2. Generally, the parks we take over are popular for their natural or historical attractions. Diluting these attractions in any way is just business suicide for operators.

      3. It doesn’t happen. We operate over 100 parks in this manner across the country and you would not be able to tell the difference between the facilities we manage and any other public park.

      We aren’t trying to take ownership of the land. We are willing to accept whatever recreation mission or preservation mission the public owner of the park sets and manage the park to that mission.

      4.私营公司是否会在黄石国家公园的忠实泉前面建个麦当劳?

      这是我最喜爱的问题之一,因为每当我和一群政府官员讨论此话题时他们都会问到。通常我会给出三个答案:

      1. 很简单这是不可能的。典型的运营合同条款明确规定,特许经营不能改变收费、设施、营业时间,甚至没有公园组织协会的批准不能随意砍掉一棵树。

      2. 通常我们会接管受欢迎的自然和历史景点较多的公园,任何减少吸引力的作为对经营者来讲就是商业自杀。

      3. 绝对不会发生。我们在全国已经经营了100个公园,你应该无法说出我们管理的设施和任何其他公共公园之间的差异。

      我们并不是要取得土地所有权,而是接受公园政府管理部门布署的旅游和保护任务并进行管理。

      黄石国家公园

      5Will private companies increase the entrance fees?

      Generally not. First, operators cannot raise fees without their government landlord’s approval. Second, public recreation is generally attractive to visitors because it is low-cost and offers real value — raising prices and reducing value would only drive customers away.

      Here is a real-world example to underscore this point: California State Parks charges $30 a night for a campsite with no utilities. Our private company operates hundreds of public campsites for other govern­ment agencies in California, and not one of those has a nightly rate greater than $20.

      5.私营企业会不会提高门票价格?

      一般不会。首先,运营商不能在没有政府的批准下提高收费标准。其次,公共旅游通常对于公众的吸引力在于低价和提供真正的价值— 涨价和减少价值只会让游客离开。

      举个实例来佐证:加州州立公园每晚的露营位收费是30美元,不提供设施。而我们私营公司在加州数百个公共营地的每晚收费没有一个超过20美元。

      小结

      国家公园的概念来源于美国,又称自然保护区。美国拥有近60个国家公园,PPP模式已经较为普及。2015年,我国启动国家公园体制,选定北京、吉林、黑龙江、浙江、福建、湖北、湖南、云南、青海等9省市开展国家公园体制试点,试点时间为3年。国家公园主要是自然生态和历史文化保护区,基本没有也不允许有新建和改扩建工程,社会资本参与国家公园的方式,集中在管理运营和保护。从美国国家公园私人运营商的经验可以看到,私营企业有更成熟更灵活的商业运作方式,不但不需要政府补贴还可以创造价值。

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